January 1993 – The Czech Republic and Slovakia
The relations between the Slovak Republic and the sovereign Czech Republic were established on 1 January 1993, date of the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, the last form of Czechoslovakia.
Previously, Czech Republic and Slovakia were both part of Austria-Hungary (the Czech lands of Austria and Slovakia from Hungary).
The two countries have 197 km of common border. As for today, there are about 200,000 Slovaks living in the Czech Republic and approximately 46,000 Czechs in Slovakia.
Official language: Czech
Currency: Czech koruna (CZK)
Calling Code: +420
Religion: 80% non-religious, 10.3% Roman Catholic
April 1993 – Eritrea
Eritrea, or State of Eritrea, is a nation in a peninsula of Northeast Africa, bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast.
After the Italian defeat in World War II, the United Nations decided in 1952 to federate Eritrea with Ethiopia that annex it in 1962.
This is the beginning of a civil war that ended in May 1991 with the victory of the independence movement, The Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF), led by Isaias Afewerki, and therefore, the fall of the Ethiopian government.
The war ended with the victory of Eritreans in 1991, and the country’s accession to independence on 24 May 1993. The new state is now chaired by Isaias Afewerki, the first President of the State of Eritrea.
- Capital: Asmara
- Official languages: Tigrinya, Arabic, English
- Currency: Nakfa (ERN)
- Calling Code: +670
- Population: 6,380,803
- Religion: Christian (Orthodox Church, Roman Catholic, Lutheran protestants) and Muslim.
October 1994 – Palau (to visit and evangelize)
Palau, officially known as the Republic of Palau, is an Islande located in Micronesia in Oceania, east of the Philippines, north of Indonesia, and west of the Federated States of Micronesia.
The country occupies the western end of the archipelago of the Caroline Islands in the western Pacific Ocean, and spread across 250 islands….
With plenty of beautiful islands and water at 29 ° C throughout the year, Palau welcomes plenty of tourists every month, which is vital to the economy.
The country was conquered and occupied by Japanese during World War I. After the defeat of Japan by the Americans during World War II, Palau became part of the United States-governed Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1947.
Palau became fully independent on October 1, 1994, from the United States who received a UN mandate to accept their sovereignty, under a Compact of Free Association (COFA) with the United States.
- Capital: Ngerulmud
- Official languages: Palauan, English, also Japanese, Sonsorolese, Tobian
- Currency: United States dollar (USD)
- Calling Code: +680
- Population: 17,948
- Religion: Mainly Roman Catholicism.
May 2002 – East Timor
East Timor, officially known as Timor-Leste, is a country in Southeast Asia, with density of about 15,410 km2 (5,400 sq mi).
The nation consists of eastern half of the island of Timor – hence its name -, and Oecussi-Ambeno, an enclave located in the western part of Timor island, surrounded by West Timor under the Indonesian sovereignty, as well as the Islands of Atauro and Jaco.
Originally a Portuguese colony for nearly four centuries, East Timor was, after the Indonesian invasion in December 1975, unilaterally annexed by that country in 1976.
The Indonesian invasion and the violence of its control are responsible for a great number of deaths, between 100,000 and 200,000.
This annexation was never recognized by the UN, which organized a self-determination referendum in August 1999, which led to full independence of East Timor in May 20, 2002.
- Capital: Dili
- Official languages: Atauru, Baikeno, Bekais, Bunak, Fataluku, Galoli, Habun, Idalaka
- Currency: United States dollar (USD)
- Calling Code: +291
- Population: 1,201,542
- Religion: Catholic, Protestant, Sunni Muslim.
June 2006 – Serbia and Montenegro
State Union of Serbia and Montenegro formed after their separation from the two remaining republics of Yugoslavia in 1991.
In 1992, the two republics together created a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (abbreviated FRY)
In 2003, the federation was reconstituted as a state union officially known as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, which leads to a transition to two independent countries on May 21, 2006.
Now Montenegro is a member of the World Trade Organization with a good economic record since the independence.
- Capital: Belgrade
- Official languages: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian
- Currency: Yugoslav dinar, Serbian dinar, Yugoslav dinar, Deutsche Mark, Euro
- Calling Code: +381
- Population: 10,832,545
- Religion: Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Catholic Christianity.
February 2008 – Kosovo
Kosovo, also known as Kosovo-Metohija by the Serbian authorities, is a very new republic located in South-Eastern Europe, particularly in the Balkans (or Balkan peninsula) and Ex- Yugoslavia.
The country becames independent from Serbia as the Republic of Kosovo in February 2008, and now recognized by some of the international community.
The Kosovo government is a de facto power over most of the territory. Its northern part, 15% of the area with a Serb majority population, was until recently under the authority of the self-proclaimed Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija.
The country is bordered by the Republic of Macedonia and Albania to the south, Montenegro to the west, and the uncontested territory of Serbia to the north and east.
- Capital: Pristina
- Official languages: Albanian and Serbian
- Currency: Euro (€) (EUR)
- Calling Code: +383
- Population: 1,859,203
- Religion: Islam, Orthodoxy, and Catholicism.
July 2011 – South Sudan
South Sudan is country in Eastern Africa whose capital is Juba. The country becomes officially Republic of South Sudan in July 9, 2011, after its independence from Sudan.
The independence became possible after a bloody war with Arab north that had lasted decades, and costs the lives of millions civilians… It is believed that the United States played a major role in the South Sudan’s statehood achievement.
…But despite the immediate recognition of the state by the international community, disputes and constant fight remain about the border.
The country is also experiencing a serious poverty crisis, although rich in untapped natural resources.
As of 2015, South Sudan is still struggling with bloody civil war between supporters of President Salva Kiir Mayardit and those of Vice President Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon….
… As result, it is estimated that about 1 million individuals have been displaced, and nearly 50,000 children may die of starvation by the end of the year.
- Capital: Juba
- Official language: English
- Currency: South Sudanese pound (SSP)
- Calling Code: +211
- Population: 8,260,490
- Religion: African Traditional Religion, Christianity and Islam